Until the day he died, my grandfather never took a Bayer aspirin. He also refused Novocain at the dentist and denied a host of other drugs and medical treatments. He did all this, annoying his family and frustrating his doctors, because he knew too much about the role German pharmaceutical companies had played in funding World War II. A chemist, a genius, and somewhat mentally unstable, he just couldn’t get past his aversion to what he knew about medical research. As such, he dug in his heels.